SOCAT
Welcome to SOCAT   

A Collection of Underway Ocean CO2 Observations Quality Controlled by the Science Community
  The Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study   The International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project
  Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Escosystem Research  
  Version 2 Data Products: About SOCAT

At the “Surface Ocean CO2 Variability and Vulnerability” (SOCOVV) workshop at UNESCO, Paris in April 2007, co-sponsored by IOCCP, SOLAS, IMBER, and the Global Carbon Project, participants agreed to establish a global surface CO2 data set that would bring together, in a common format, all publicly available fCO2 data for the surface oceans. (The fugacity of carbon dioxide, or fCO2, is the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) corrected for non-ideal behaviour of the gas.) This is an activity that has been called for by many international groups for many years, and has now become a priority activity for the marine carbon community.  This data set will serve as a foundation upon which the community will continue to build in the future, based on agreed data and metadata formats and standard 1st level quality-control procedures, building on earlier agreements established at the 2004 Tsukuba workshop on “Ocean Surface pCO2 Data Integration and Database Development”. This activity also supports the SOLAS and IMBER science plans and their joint carbon implementation plan.

This data set is meant to serve a wide range of user communities and it is envisaged that, in the future, 2 distinct data products will be made available in this Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT):

- a 2nd level quality controlled global surface ocean fCO2  data set following agreed procedures and regional review,
- and a gridded SOCAT product of monthly surface water fCO2 means on a 1° x 1° grid with no temporal or spatial interpolation.

The extended 1st level quality-controlled data set builds on the work started in 2001 as part of the EU ORFOIS project by Dorothee Bakker , which now continues as part of the EU CarboOcean project, where Benjamin Pfeil and Are Olsen (Bjerknes Centre for Climate research, University of Bergen, Norway), have compiled the publicly-available surface CO2 data held at CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center), WDC-MARE (World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences) and elsewhere into a common format database based on the IOCCP recommended formats for metadata and data reporting.
This compilation currently includes data from more than 10 countries, producing an initial database composed of more than 1850 cruises from 1968 to 2007 with approximately 6.3 million measurements of various carbon parameters, available in a common format, 1st level quality-controlled data set.
This data set was published in 2011. At the SOCOVV meeting participants established regional working groups and a global group for.

For SOCAT Version 3 the groups are:

North Atlantic (30N to Fram Strait) – Ute Schuster (U.Exceter, UK)

Arctic (incl. coastal waters) - Jeremy Mathis (NOAA/PMEL, USA)

Tropical Atlantic (30N to 30S)-  Nathalie Lefèvre (LOCEAN, France)

Equatorial Pacific (30N-30S): Cathy Cosca (NOAA/PMEL, USA)

North Pacific (30N): Yukihiro Nojiri (NIES, Japan)

Southern Ocean (south of 30S including coastal waters) – Bronte Tilbrook (CSIRO, Australia) and Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France)

Indian Ocean (north of 30S) – V.V.S.S. Sarma (NIO, India)

Coastal Ocean – Simone Alin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Burke Hales (Oregon State University, USA), Wei-Jun Cai (University of Georgia, USA)

Global group - Dorothee Bakker (UEA, UK), Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France), Kevin O'Brien (
University of Washington/NOAA/PMEL, USA), Are Olsen (IMR/BCCR, Norway), Benjamin Pfeil (UiB/BCCR, Norway), Alex Kozyr (CDIAC, USA), Denis Pierrot (NOAA/AOML, USA), Maciej Telszewski (IOCCP, Poland), Kim Currie (National Institite of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)

SOCAT Automation team - Steve Hankin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Steve Jones (UEA, UK), Karl Smith (JISAO/University of Washington/TMAP/PMEL NOAA), Alex Kozyr (CDIAC, USA), Kevin O'Brien (University of Washington/NOAA/PMEL), Benjamin Pfeil (UiB/BCCR, Norway), Denis Pierrot (NOAA/AOML, USA)
, Dorothee Bakker (UEA, UK), Are Olsen (IMR/BCCR, Norway), Biva Shresta (CDIAC, USA), Ranjeet Devarakondra (CDIAC, USA), Ute Schuster (U.Exceter, UK)

Advisor on SOCAT - Christopher Sabine (NOAA, USA)



For SOCAT Version 2 the groups were:

North Atlantic (30N to Fram Strait) – Ute Schuster (UEA, UK)

Arctic (incl. coastal waters) - Jeremy Mathis (NOAA/PMEL, USA)

Tropical Atlantic (30N to 30S)-  Nathalie Lef
èvre (LOCEAN, France)

Equatorial Pacific (30N-30S): Cathy Cosca (NOAA/PMEL, USA)

North Pacific (30N): Yukihiro Nojiri (NIES, Japan)

Southern Ocean (south of 30S including coastal waters) – Bronte Tilbrook (CSIRO, Australia) and Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France)

Indian Ocean (north of 30S) – V.V.S.S. Sarma (NIO, India)

Coastal Ocean – Simone Alin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Burke Hales (Oregon State University, USA), Wei-Jun Cai (University of Georgia, USA)

Global group - Dorothee Bakker (UEA, UK), Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France), Steven Hankin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Are Olsen (IMR/BCCR, Norway), Benjamin Pfeil (UiB/BCCR, Norway), Alex Kozyr (CDIAC, USA), Denis Pierrot (NOAA/AOML, USA), Maciej Telszewski (IOCCP, Poland)


SOCAT Automation team - Steve Hankin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Steve Jones (UEA, UK), Karl Smith (JISAO/University of Washington/TMAP/PMEL NOAA), Alex Kozyr (CDIAC, USA), Kevin O'Brien (NOAA/PMEL), Benjamin Pfeil (UiB/BCCR, Norway), Denis Pierrot (NOAA/AOML, USA)


Advisor on SOCAT - Christopher Sabine (NOAA, USA)


For SOCAT Version 1.5 the groups were:

North Atlantic (including Arctic) – Ute Schuster (UEA, UK)

Tropical Atlantic -  Nathalie Lef
èvre (LOCEAN, France)

Pacific – Equatorial Pacific (30N-30S): Richard Feely (NOAA/PMEL, USA) and North Pacific (30N): Yukihiro Nojiri (NIES, Japan)

Southern Ocean – Bronte Tilbrook (CSIRO, Australia) and Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France)

Indian Ocean – V.V.S.S. Sarma (NIO, India)

Coastal Ocean – Arthur Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan) and Alberto Borges (U. Liege, Belgium)

Global group - Dorothee Bakker (UEA, UK), Chris Sabine (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Nicolas Metzl (LOCEAN/IPSL, France), Steven Hankin (NOAA/PMEL, USA), Are Olsen (IMR/BCCR, Norway), Benjamin Pfeil (UiB/BCCR, Norway), Alex Kozyr (CDIAC, USA), Maciej Telszewski (IOCCP, France)

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This page is hosted by Benjamin Pfeil, University of Bergen/Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research/SKD, Bergen (Norway)
This page has been designed by Heather Koyuk, University of Washington/JISAO, Seattle (USA)